بررسی تاثیر (Zn) بر بافت آبشش و کبد ماهی فیتوفاگ Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه بیولوژی دریا، دانشکده علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال

چکیده

فلزات سنگین ازآلاینده های سمی اکوسیستم های آبی محسوب می شوند. هدف ازاین مطالعه،بررسی اثر سمی فلزسنگین روی بربافت کبد و آبشش ماهی فیتوفاگ پرورشی می باشد. تحقیق مزبور در بهار سال 1390 در انستیتو تحقیقات بین المللی ماهیان خاویاری دکتر دادمان رشت انجام گرفت. در این تحقیق تعداد 135 قطعه ماهی فیتوفاگ با طول 1±13 سانتی مترو وزن10±50 گرم پس از آداپتاسیون، در یک گروه شاهد و دو تیمار 5 و 10 میلی گرم در لیتر نیترات روی (Zn(NO3)2)، در آکواریوم های90 لیتری قرار داده شدند. پس از گذشت 72،48،24،12 و96 ساعت نمونه برداری از بافت های کبد و آبشش انجام شد. بافت های برداشته شده در محلول بوئن تثبیت و در مقاطع 5 میکرومتری با روش هماتوکسین-ائوزین رنگ آمیزی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که سلول های پوششی بافت آبشش دچار هیپرپلازی شدند و سلول های لامل اچروکیده شده و بین لاملاها جداشدگی(Lifting)و چسبندگی(Fusion)مشاهده شد.این آسیب ها با افزایش غلظت،شدت بیشتری یافتند. در بافت پارانشیم کبد ماهیانی که در معرض نیترات روی قرار گرفته بودند، عوارضی همچون آتروفی سلولی، ملانوماکروفاژ، تورم ابری، پرخونی،واکوئوله شدن سلول ها ی کبدی ودرنهایت نکروزیس مشاهده شد که باافزایش غلظت و زمان مجاورت در مقایسه با گروه شاهد شدت بیشتری یافتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Toxic effects of Zinc on gill and liver of Silver carp (Hypophthalmichtys molitrix)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Shakoori
  • S. Abdali
Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University Tehran North Branch
چکیده [English]

One of the toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystem is heavy metals. This study aims to elucidate the toxic impact of zinc on the structure of gill and liver in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). This study was conducted at spring 1390 at the International Sturgeon Research Institute. In this study, after adaptation, 135 fish with the length of 13±1 cm and the weight of 50±10gr were put in one control group and 2 treatment groups contained 0, 5, and 10mg/L (Zn (NO) 3)2 in 90 liter aquariums. Fish were sampled at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The samples of gill and liver in each treatment were immediately fixed in Bouin solution and 5μ sections were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin general staining method. In histological study of gills, epithelial cell hyperplasia was encountered, that had increased with high metal densities. Initially lamella cells wrinkled and change of formation was observed in chloride cells. This lesion enhanced in higher densities. Fish liver exposed to zinc showed atrophy,cloudiness, swelling, hyperemia, vacuolation and necrosis. These hepatic alterations were more evident in fish exposed to high metal densities. In conclusion, the present study showed that histopathology of liver and gill in silver carp, is a useful biomarker for environmental pollution, since it discriminated between reference and test sites.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Zinc
  • Toxic impact
  • liver
  • Gill
  • Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

آقازاده مشگی،م.1380. عوامل میکروبی مولد فساد در ماهی و فرآورده‌های  آن. دکتریت تخصصی بهداشت و موادغذایی. دانشکده علوم تخصصی دامپزشکی.دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحدعلوم و تحقیقات تهران.

ناجی،ط.،صفائیان،ش.،رستمی،م.،وصبرجو،م.1386. بررسی اثرات سولفات روی بر بافت آبشش بچه ماهی کپور معمولی (Cyprinus carpio). علوم و تکنولوژی محیط زیست،9(2):36-29.

Adham, K.G., Hamed, S.S., Ibrahim, H. M. & Saleh, R.A. 2002. Impaired functions in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757), from Polluted Waters. Acta hydrochimica et hydrobiologica,29(5):278-288.

Adhikari, S. & Ayyappan, S. 2004. Behavioral role of Zinc on primary productivity, plankton and grow of a fresh water teleost. Labeo rohita (Homilton). Aquaculture, 231 (14), 327-336.

Aggett, P. & Comeford, J. G. 1995. Zinc and human health. Nutrition Reviews, 53: 16-22.

Braunbeck, T., Storch, V. & Bresch, H., 1990. Species-specific reaction of liver ultra-structure in Zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) and trout (Salmo gairdneri) after exposure to 4-chloroaniline. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 19:405-418.

Chreck, C.B. & Moyle, P.B. 1990. Methods for fish biology. American Fisheries Society. Oxford University Press, USA.

Clark, R. B. 1986. Marine pollution. Oxford University Press, USA.

Farkas, A, Salanki, J. & Varanka, I. 2000. Heavy metal concentrations in fish of Lake Balaton, lakes & reservoirs. Research and Management, 5: 271279.

Figueiredo-Fernandes, A., Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A., Monteiro, R.A.F., Reis- Henriques, M.A. & Rocha E. 2006. Effects of the fungicide mancozeb in the liver structure of Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus-Assessment and quantification of induced cytological changes using qualitative histopathology and the stereological point-sampled intercept method. The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 76(2):249-255.

Handy, R. D. 1996. Dietary exposure to toxic metals in fish, In: Taulor E.W. (Ed), Toxicology of aquatic pollution: physiological cellular and molecular approaches. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, England.

Hassanin, S.I.A. 2008. Metals residues, histological alterations and cooking methods of fish cultured in wastewater ponds. 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Cairo International Convention & Exhibition Center (CICC), Cairo. 12-14 Oct 2008.

Hinton, D.E. & Lauren, D.J. 1990. Liver structural alterations accompanying chronic toxicity in fishes: potential biomarkers of exposure. In: Biomarkers of Environmental Contamination. (Eds.) J.F. McCarthy and L.R. Shugart. Lewis Publishers. USA.

Hovis, M., Kimball, R. & Peterson, J. 2005.Mathematics exercises in biotechnology. Dilutions of stock liquid solutions. National Science Foundation, 2: 12-14.

 

Karan, V., Victoric, S., Tutundic, V. & Poleksic, V. 2002. Functional enzymes activity and histology of carp after copper sulfate exposure and recovery. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 40: 49-55.

Lian-Tien, S. & Sen-Shyong, J. 1998. Comparative Zinc concentrations in tissues of Common carp and other aquatic organisms. Zoological Studies, 37(3):184-190.

Marioara, N., Gabi, D., Liliana, P.C., Motmaria, B.D., Tapalaga, I., Lunca, M. & Liliana, B. 2009. Pathologycal tissue lesions induced by chronic cadmium intoxication in Silver crucian carp Carassius auatus gibelio. Zootehnie and Biotehnologii, 42 (2): 84-90.

Moor, G.& Ramamurty, S. 1987. Heavy metals in natural waters. Mir. Moscow.

Olojo, E. A. A., Olurin, K.B., Mbaka, G. & Oluwemimo, A.D. 2005. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to lead. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(1):117-122.

Paris-Palacios, S., Biagianti-Risbourg, S. & Vernet G. 2000. Biochemical and (ultra) structural hepatic perturbation of Brachydanio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) exposed to two sub lethal concentrations of copper sulphate. Aquatic Toxicology, 50:109-124.

Patra, R.C., Swarup, D., Naresh, R., Puneet, K. & Shekhar, P. 2005. Cadmium level in blood and milk from animals reared around different polluting sources in India. The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology,76 (4): 1092-1097.

Rocha, E. & Monteiro, R.A.F. 1999. Histology and cytology of fish liver: In Saksena D.N. (ed.) Ichthyology: Recent research advances. Science Publishers. Enfield, New Hampshire.

Swarup, D., Patra, R.C., Naresh Ram Puneet, K., Pallav, S. & Balagangatharathilagar, M. 2006. Deficiency of copper and cobalt in goats reared around lead and zinc smelter. Small Ruminant Research, 63 (3): 309-313.

Van der Oost, R., Beber, J. & Vermeulen., N. P. E. 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13: 57-149.

Varanka, Z., Rojik, I., Varanka, I., Nemcsók, J. & Ábrahám, M.2001. Biochemical and morphological changes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver following exposure to copper sulfate and tannic acid.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C, 128:467-478.

Visoottiviseth, P., Thamamaruitkun, T., Sahaphong, S., Riengrojpitak, S. & Kruatrachue, M. 1999.Histopathological effects of triphenyltin hydroxide on liver, kidney and gill of Nile tilapia(Oreochromis nilotica). Applied Organometallic Chemistry,13:749-763.

Wood, C. M. 2001. Toxic responses of the gill. In schlenk, D, Benson, W.H. (Eds), Target organ. Toxicity in marine and freshwater teleost. Vol.1.Taylor and Francis. London.