عنوان مقاله [English]
The objective of this research is to analyze the effluents in order to find out if it is suitable for Artemia culture. Maraghe’s Kaveh Soda factory which is located at 37°18’35” E and 46°13’55”N produces Na2CO3 and Na2CO3.H20. The physico-chemical character of effluent (2.5m3 /year) of this factory is somehow similar to the Urmia Lake water and is stored in earthen ponds at the vicinity of the plant .The water sampling was done from 4 ponds(1, 5, 7, 10) and sediments were collected from two(7,10). The physico chemical characters of the effluent water were analyzed. Temperature, salinity, pH, EC, TDS, DO, BOD, COD, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO2, NO3, SO4, PO4, Cl, NH3, Si, Ni, Pb, and FCC and TCC were determined by routine laboratory methods using pH ion meter, DO meter, salinometer, photometers, flamephotometer, polaro-graphy, atomic absorption and microbial analysis methods. The heavy metals Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr were analyzed in the sediments. For Artemia culture the effluent water was collected from ponds 7 and 10 that had more similarities to the Urmia Lake water.
Two Artemia populations, the sexual Artemia urmiana and the asexual Artemia parthenogenetica were cultured under standard laboratory conditions in 38 different treatment combinations using pure pond water and in combinations with river and Urmia Lake water. Artemia in a series of combina-tions were fed with unicellular algae while in 2nd series no food was added. The results of effluent water analysis showed that the density of most ions decrease through pond 1 to pond number 10. All Artemia that were cultured in pure effluent water died within 2-3 days. But Artemia parthenogenetica had 40% survival when 50% effluent+50% river combination was used as culture medium. This result was only 10% less than the control group that was cultured in 80 ppt Urmia Lake water. Artemia attained sexual adulthood in combination water medium and reproduced ovoviviparously. The mortality percent in F1 was lower compared to maternal Artemia. The mortality rate was much higher in Artemia urmiana in comparison to the parthenogenetic strain, proving that Artemia urmiana is not suitable for culture in this water. It seems that high concentration of Ca, TDS, TH, Ni and NH3 in effluent water are the major reason for growth and reproduction of Artemia in the effluent water.